Software

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Apple software

Programs and Utilities

The Apple II programs I use, both now and when it was a current machine, are mostly concerned with basic disk management and copying, minor hacking, diagnostics and simple word processing.

DOS 3.3DOS 3.3 file listingProDOSProDOS file listing
CP/M on Z80 cardCopy II+LockSmithII+ diagnostics
AppleWorksAppleWorks Word ProcessorAppleWorks FormattingThe Print Shop

Games

But in fact, when it comes to the Apple II, I must admit that my software interests are mostly games. (Keep in mind that I was just a kid at the time these were current, and BASIC was always there in the ROM.)

SneakersWavy NavyDecathlonWings of Fury
Galactic SagaChoplifterSanta ParaviaTaipan
GalaxianKaratekaMoon PatrolRescue Raiders
David's Midnight MagicSabotageSnakeByteSpeedway Classic

The Apple II Desktop

The Apple II Desktop is a 1985/6 Macintosh Finder-like interface for the Apple IIe, IIc and IIgs. It's performance is quite sluggish, but its file management capabilities are nevertheless useful for the ProDOS hard drive partition used by the IIe card in my Colour Classic.

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Macintosh Development Software

As I used the Macintosh for a much longer period and in a far more diverse way, my software interests for this machine are much broader. However, my principal interest \ by this stage was very much program development.

Macintosh Programmers WorkshopTHINK PascalTHINK C
Metrowerks CodeWarriorHypercardHypercard, showing hypertalk
ResEdit 1.2ResEdit 2.1MacsBug

Programming the Macintosh initially required a Lisa, but by early 1985, the Macintosh 68000 Development System was available, enabling development of Macintosh applications in assembly actually on a Macintosh. After this came some early versions of programming software for higher level languages, such as C and Forth. (The earliest BASIC and Pascal environments were available in 1984, but were interpreters only.) By 1986, the Macintosh Programmer's Workshop (MPW) and the LightSpeed (later THINK) IDE's for Pascal and C became the principal environments for Macintosh development. The IDE paradigm provided by the THINK products included a very fast compiler plus an integrated debugger, and allowed rapid application development and ease of use, but was much less extensible, customisable and controllable than the full MPW shell-based environment. Around the time of the PowerPC transition, Metrowerks CodeWarrior arrived on the scene, and became a significant player as THINK was acquired by Symantec and faded in quality, and Apple were somewhat slow in getting MPW up-to-scratch for the new platform.

Along with System 6, Apple introduced Hypercard, a product written and championed by Bill Atkinson of QuickDraw and MacPaint fame. Growing from a hardware idea of a Macintosh tablet, he devised Hypercard as a card-based programming system, based on a scripting language (HyperTalk), and integrated multimedia presentation using hyperlinks. In many respects, Hypercard was a 1987 precursor to the World Wide Web.

Early on in the development of the Macintosh OS, Bruce Horn's ideas on data abstraction led to the development of a Resource Manager, meaning many aspects of any particular Macintosh program resided in separate, customisable blocks called "resources". A side-effect of this structure was that Macintosh programs were also much easier to hack, and many Macintosh users had fun changing messages and icons, and (for the more capable hackers) code. Resources could be graphically constructed, viewed, and edited using ResEdit and Resorcerer - invaluable tools for Macintosh developers.

At the very lowest level, a Macintosh developer had available a free utility from Apple called MacsBug. (It stands for Motorola Advanced Computer Systems Debugger - the "Mac" part of the name is purely co-incidental.) And what a program this was! If installed, you could drop into it via a non-maskable interrupt at any particular time, configure your program to drop into it via a Toolbox call, and the operating system dropped into it when there was a System Error. Using it, you could examine and change memory, disassemble and trace through code, set breakpoints, examine the stack and heap, and many other wonderful things. I have to admit I first learnt to use it as a way of getting past cripple-ware restrictions or avoiding "deaths" in shoot-em type games. Starting with a minimal version for the 128K Macintosh, MacsBug continued to evolve, and there were versions for everything right up until the Beige G3.

The specific development systems I maintain on the machines in my collection include the following:

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Macintosh Applications

MathematicaKaleidaGraphPagemaker 1.2
MacPaintMacWriteMacDraw
MS Word 1MS Word 5MS Excel 4
Adobe IllustratorAdobe PhotoShopDirectTeX

Mathematical and Scientific Software

I have already mentioned how I was bitten by the Macintosh bug as a university student studying physics. Obviously calculations and their presentation in graphical form were a major part of my work, and although alot of my work was done with self-programmed software, I also made a great deal of use of mathematical and "scientific" software, such as Mathematica, for both study and enjoyment.

Document Preparation and Office Productivity Software

Since document preparation is a central aspect of general computer use, I try to keep a nice set of such programs on the machines in my collection. Although I did nearly all of my own document preparation in LaTeX (because of its ability to typeset mathematical symbols properly), the significance of PageMaker for the success of the Macintosh means being able to run an early version of it on my 512K Mac is also quite important to me. I currently have version 1.2 from 1986, but I am hoping to find a copy of the original 1985 version.

Starting with the release of MacPaint and MacWrite with the original Maintosh, closely followed by MacDraw, a basic productivity "suite" was available from Apple for all Macintoshes. After several years of enhancements to these programs, and the integration of a spreadsheet, database and serial communications program, the suite was eventually formalised as "ClarisWorks Office" (Claris being Apple's subsidiary software division).

Like just about every computer user on the planet, I have also spent many hours using various products from Microsoft, and it would be foolish to deny the importance of these in Macintosh history. Indeed, it would be my guess that Microsoft Word was the most widely used single Macintosh application for at least the 10 years following the release of version 1.0 in 1985. In particular, version 4 and version 5 of Word were solid and reliable staple applications for Macintosh users, but bloat began to be a problem by the time Word 6 appeared.

The following programs and versions are those I consider sufficiently important to keep available on my computers:

Graphics and Related

The importance of graphic applications to the success of the Macintosh cannot be overstated. Implicit in the initial impact of MacPaint, and truly established by the conjuntion of PageMaker, PostScript, and the LaserWriter, it was the two flagship Adobe packages, Illustrator and PhotoShop, that really took hold and made high-end graphical work synonymous with the Macintosh.

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Macintosh Utility Software

Anarchie 3.7 (1999)NCSA Mosaic (1994)Netscape 1.1 (1995)
VersaTerm 3.1.1 (1990)DiskTop 4.0 DA (1989)Greg's Browser(1986)
Disk First Aid 1.0.1 (1986)Norton Utilities 2 (1992)Stuffit Deluxe 5.5 (1999)
and HoverBar 1.3.1 (1997)
Midigraphy (1999)Encore (1995)Speedometer 4.0 (1994)

Communication

In the days before the web, I made a lot of use of terminal programs on the Macintosh - particularly Telnet and Versaterm, and I still remember how wonderful it was when programs such as Fetch, and most notably Anarchie became available, making downloading files via ftp much, much easier with their GUIs. Then, by the mid-nineties, the World Wide Web was becoming established, with Mosaic in 1994 the first Macintosh browser, soon followed by Netscape.

Miscellaneous Applications

I'm a keen amateur musician, so it is both useful and fun to be able to prepare scores on a Macintosh. I have also spent quite some time messing around with MIDI using a Macintosh and my KORG synthesizer. Indeed, thanks to MIDIGraphy, I even played the music at my own wedding!

General Utilities

Having used the Macintosh heavily for so many years means I have built up quite a collection of utilities - each of which provides important assistance to my everyday use. And these utilities remain important for the maintenance and ongoing use of the computers in my collection. For disk imaging and duplication, there's ShrinkWrap and the Disk Copy family from Apple. And for System 6 support of disk images, there's DiskDup+. Also useful for older systems is DiskTop, a Desk Accessory proving a number of Finder-like features.

It is always fun to benchmark machines with Speedometer. You can see results for all the machines in my collection at 68K and PowerPC.

For archive management, the many StuffIt compression utilities from Aladdin remains invaluable, as do the diagnostic and maintenance programs: Norton Utilities and Apple's own Disk First Aid. I cannot begin to count how many times I was saved from disaster by these programs!

Then there are the many interface enhancing extensions and utilities, adding customisation and convenience to the Macintosh OS. Two particular stand-outs for me personally are Greg's Browser and HoverBar.

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Games

Unlike with the Apple II, I didn't do a great deal of game playing on the Macintosh, but the following are a few games that I particularly liked:

Through the Looking Glass (1984)Reversi (1984)ShadowGate (1987)
Tetris (1988)ShufflePuck Cafe (1988)Seahaven Towers (1988)
Risk II (1990)Solarian II (1990)JewelBox 1.0 (1992)
BeamWars (1992)Lemmings 1.4.2 (1992)StarRunner 1 (1992), 1.2 (1992), Plus (1994)
Maelstrom 1.4 (1993)Slime Invaders 2.0 (1993)

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DOS and Windows software

Although it seems quite nice that my PowerMac 6100 has a 486 card and can run DOS and Windows 3.1/95, there's not really that much I actually want to use it for. I didn't really use Windows at all until much later, so there are only a handful of old programs for DOS/Windows that have any interest for me. Some of these are shown in the following table:

MS-DOSNorton CommanderWindows 95
Turbo PascalGPTristan

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Some programs I have written

Finally, some of my own Macintosh programs are described and available to download by clicking on the images in the following table:

SpirolateralsFunny Faces
ImageAutomata
MoonVigilante & Thai Clock

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